The Roman Occupation

I. The Conquest of Britain
    A. Caesar's Invasion (55-4 BCE)
        1. Why was Caesar interested in Britain? [DOC1]
        2. Maps: Roman Britain, SE England
    B. Claudius' Conquest (43 CE)
        - Why was Claudius more successful than Caesar?
    C. Boudicca's Revolt (61 CE)
        1. ruler of the Iceni tribe in eastern England
        2. very successful in leading the Iceni army against the Romans
    D. Hadrian's Wall (122-8 CE)
        1. the Romans controlled Wales by 78
        2. they controlled much of northern England and Scotland by 84         3. Scotland was difficult to control; the Picts continually launched raids         4. the emperor Hadrian decided to build a wall that would aid                 the Romans in defending the border region  [MAP]         5. Images: the wall, diagram of the wall, reconstructed gatehouse II. The Romanization of Britain     A. Towns and Roads         1. Urbanization in the Roman Empire         2. Map of towns and roads in Roman Britain         3. How the Romans built their roads [Roman road near modern Manchester]         4. Three main types of towns built by the Romans             a. colonia              b. municipium             c. civitas     B. Amenities         1. public baths, toilets, sewers [public bath at Bath]         2. theaters         3. amphitheaters (stadiums) [Chester: remains, reconstruction]     C. Villas         1. centers of agricultural estates         2. had some of the ammenities/comfort of life in the towns             a. tile floors, central heating [villa in Gloucestershire]             b. reconstruction of a typical villa     D. Citizenship         1. dual citizenship         2. various rights that came with Roman citizenship III. The Arrival of Christianity     A. Pre-Christian Britain         1. Romans and Britons both polytheistic         2. similar gods; different names         3. e.g., Mars and Camulos     B. Christianity probably spread to Britain via Roman soldiers IV. The Decline of Roman Rule in Britain     A. Saxon shore forts [Map]      B. Decline of the Roman Empire [Map of Germanic Invasions]     C. Picts, Irish and Saxons all attack in 367     D. Roman army leaves to fight on the continent in 406-7 and doesn't return     E. in 410 the emperor Honorius informs the Britons that they will have to              defend themselves against the Saxons